MAFIA ISLAND TANZANIA image branding - people of Mafia Island

Nyumbani

Akiolojia na Historia

Idadi ya watu na sensa

Ikiolojia (pamoja na Hifadhi ya Bahari)

Uchumi

Utalii

Afya na miradi ya afya

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Habari mbalimbali za Kisiwa cha Mafia

Picha za Mafia

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Uchumi na Maendeleo

Kisiwa cha Mafia ni miongoni mwa maeneo maskini yanayosadikiwa kuwa chini kimaendeleo. Wakazi wake wanategemea zaidi kilimo na uvuvi.

Kilimo cha kujihamia na mazao ya biashara: nazi na korosho

Feller up a coconut tree Kisiwa cha Mafia kinategemea uchumi mseto unaojumuisha kilimo cha mazao ya kujikimu na kile cha mazao ya biashara. Kilimo cha mazao ya kujikimu kipo zaidi upande wa kaskazini ambapo mapori mengi yanapatikana. Wenyeji hulima mpunga, mihogo, maharagwe, mahindi, mbaazi, nyanya na mazao mengineyo. Upande wa kusini hulimwa mazao ya nazi na mikorosho kama mazao pekee ya biashara kisiwani hapo. Mazao yote hayo hupelekwa Dar es Salaam kwa mauzo. Bei ya nazi katika soko la dunia imeshuka hivi karibuni kwa sababu ya kuongezeka kwa uzalishaji mali na kupungua kwa mahitaji ya zao hilo. Wakati bei ya zao la korosho ni kubwa kidogo, miti iliyopo kisiwani Mafia inakabiliwa na magonjwa.

Uvuvi

Boatyard, Mwapepo, Chole IslandKwa miaka ya hivi karibuni shughuli za biashara ya uvuvi zimepamba moto katika pwani ya Afrika ya Mashariki hususani kisiwani Mafia. Kupanuka kwa kwa biashara ya uvuvi ni moja ya sababu ya kuanzishwa kwa maeneo tengefu ya hifadhi ya bahari ya kisiwa cha Mafia (tazama sehemu ya Ikologia. Ingawaje uvuvi wa samaki wa kawaida wenye mapezi ni muhimu kwa matumizi ya nyumbani na kwa biashara (wakiwa ng'onda au wabichi), ni uvuvi wa kamba na pweza ambapo wavuvi hupata bei nzuri kutokana na kuwepo kwa na mahitaji kwa ajili ya kuuza nje. Tangu kampuni ya Alpha Africa kutokea Kenya ichukuwe shughuli za Kampuni ndogo ya kusindika samaki iliyokuwa inamilikiwa na Mfanyabiashara wa kigiriki. Samaki aina ya pweza na ngisi hivi sasa ndiyo ambao wanabei ya juu ukilinganisha na aiana nyengine ya samaki www.alphaafrica.com, angalia also www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/21012002/Business/Business5.html

Seta ya uvuvi kama ilivyo sehemu nyengine hapa Afrika ta Mashariki inamatatizo yake.

Vilevile kuna ripoti muhimu ya mkutano inayoitwa 'Status and Trends of Tanzania's Marine Artisanal Fisheries' iliyoandikwa na N.S. Jiddawi wa Chuo cha Uvuvi na Mambo ya Bahari cha Unfuja angalia www.icsf.net/jsp/conference/forging_unity/tanzania/.pdf

Ina sehemu ihusuyo Hifadhi ya Bahari katika stashahada ya Catherine Msigwa Chando iitwayo Gender Roles in Fishery Planning and Projects: the Case Study of Coast Region in Tanzania 2002.pdf

Kazi za Kinamama: Ususi wa majamvi

Group of women seated and plaitingMoja ya shughuli za kujipatia kipato kwa upande wa kinamama kisiwani Mafia ni biashara ya ususi wa majamvi. Majamvi makubwa hutumika kwa kulalia au kukalia huitwa mikeka wakati ile midogo ni ya aina misala. Kili za kusukia majamvi zinapatikana kwenye vichaka nje kidogo ya vijijini na hukatwa na kuanikwa juani. Kabla ya kusukwa kwa majamvi au mikeka kindu hizo huchambuliwa katika vikili vidogo vidogo tayari kwa kusukia vikapu au mikeka. Si ajabu kumuona mwanamama akiwa amebeba kikapu kichwani huku akisuka na kuchambua kili kwa kutengenezea mikeka au misala.

Ingawaje majamvi au mikeka ya kisiwa cha Mafia ni maarufu sana lakini bei waipatayo kinamama ni ya chini sana ni sawa na paundi moja ya kiingereza au shilingi 1200 tu. Hii ni kwa kadri wanavyopewa na wachuuzi wanaopeleka bidhaa hizo katika soko kuu la Kariakoo Dar es Salaam. Mwanamke mmoja aweza kutengeneza kiasi cha nusu dazeni ya majamvi kwa mwaka na mapato yake yakamsaidia kununua nguo zake na za watoto wake.

Angalia vile vile sehemu ya Photo Gallery

Mipango ya Maendeleo

Kwa sasa kuna mipango mikuu mitatu ya jinsi ya kuendeleza uchumi wa kisiwa cha Mafia. Kilimo cha uvuvi wa kamba, uchimbaji wa mafuta, na utalii. Tutaangalia miradi miwili ya mwanzo hapa chini na ule wa utalii tutauzungumzia ukurasa ujao.

Ufugaji wa Kamba

Mipango ya kuanzishwa shamba kubwa la kamba katika eneo la Rufiji kwenye miaka ya 1990 ilipingwa na wananchi hadi kutishia kuipeleka serikali mahakamani. Pingamizi hilo liliungwa mkono na kikundi cha wanasheria wa kimazingira (Lawyers' Environmental Action Team - LEAT) ambao katika mitandao yao wameonyesha ripoti na makala yahusuyo jambo hilo. Angalia: http://www.LEAT.or.tz/publications

Kulikuwepo na mgogoro mkubwa kuhusiana na mpango huo kitaifa na kimataifa katika miaka hiyo ya 1990 na kuna mitandao kadhaa inayoshughulikia suala hilo: Pamela Stedman-Edwards: 'Tanzania: Rufiji, Ruvu and Wami' inapatikana katika www.panda.org/resources/programmes/mpo/library/download/.rctanzania.doc+prawn

Ripoti mbalimbali katika jarida la Bulletin of the World Rainforest Movement zimeonyesha mipango ya uanzishaji wa mradi wa ufugaji wa kamba wa Rufiji na sehemu nyenginezo duniani http://www.wrmn.org.uy/bulletin. kama ilivyo ripoti ya taifa (Tanzania) iliyotolewa na Shrimp Sentinel (angalia www.shrimpaction.com).

Alpha Africa ni kampuni inayomiliki kiwanda cha kusindika samaki cha TANPESCA kilichopo Kisiwani Mafia. Kiwanda hiki kinamipango ya kuanzisha ufugaji wa kamba upande wa kaskazini mwa kisiwa cha Mafia. Mpango huu nimeujadili katika ripoti yangu ya 2002 kwa COSTECH (Tanzanian Commission for Science and Technology), inapatikana katika www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/departments/anthropology/staff/pat-caplan/project-Tanzania-global.htm.

Uchimbaji wa Mafuta

Ni kipindi kirefu sasa tangu ugunduzi wa kuwa mkondo wa Mafia unadalili ya kuwepo kwa mafuta (angalia tasnifu ya 1997 ya Samson Mpanda Geological Development of the East African Coastal Basin of Tanzania inayopatikana katika: wqww.su.se/forskning/disputationer/spikblad/mpanda.htm

Kuna maelezo mafupi ya msingi yahusuyo historia ya ugunduzi wa mafuta ilifanywa na Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation

Alpha Africa (www.alphaafrica.com), the company which owns the TANPESCA fish processing plant on Mafia, plans to set up a prawn farm in northern Mafia. This proposal is discussed in my 2002 report to COSTECH, the Tanzanian Commission for Science and Technology, available on www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/departments/anthropology/staff/pat-caplan/project-Tanzania-global.html

Oil prospecting

It has been clear for some time that the Mafia Channel and Island indicate a considerable hydrocarbon potential (see 1997 thesis by Samson Mpanda Geological Development of the East African coastal basin of Tanzania available on www.su.se/forskning/disputationer/spikblad/mpanda.html)

There is a useful short exploration history by the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation www.tpdc-tz.com/exploration_history.htm The webpage of the Tanzania High Commission in London also has a brief profile of the oil industry: www.tanzania-online.gov.uk/Business/OilProfile.htm as does the Mbendi 'Information for Africa' website: www.mbendi.co.za/indy/oilg/af/ta/p00005.htm

By 2002 oil companies were spending over $293million on oil exploration in Tanzania: www.gasandoil.com

Companies include Aminex: www.aminex-plc.com/tanzania.html A report in the East African newspaper on Shell: www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/09062003/Regional/Regional090620330 The Brazilian company Braspetro: www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=918

While it is often considered that the discovery of oil could solve many of Tanzania's problems of chronic poverty, a warning note is sounded by Giles Foden in his article 'They made a mess of Nigeria...' www.guardian.co.uk/life/feature/story/0,,1039299,00.html

References and further reading

Caplan, Pat. 1981: "Development Policies in Tanzania: Some Implications for Women" in The Journal of Development Studies 17, 3: 98-108 (also published in N. Nelson (ed.) African Women in the Development Process London: Frank Cass, 1981)

-- 1995a. Food, Health and Fertility Further Investigated with Particular Reference to Gender: a Report on Fieldwork on Mafia Island, Tanzania, June-August 1994. Report present to the Tanzania National Scientific Research Council, July 1995 (38pp.)

-- 2003. 'Struggling to be modern: recent letters from Mafia Island'. In P. Caplan and F. Topan (eds.) Swahili Modernities. Lawrenceville, NJ.: Africa World Press.

Van Spengen, Wim, 1979. 'Structural Characteristics of Underdevelopment in the Mafia Archipelago: an Historical Analysis', Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, XX (3): 331-53.

Walley, Christine, 2004. Rough Waters: nature and development in an East African Marine Park. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.